Various Types of Fibre Optic Cables

by Virginia Wilbur

Fiber optic cables are made up of thin strands of glass or plastic that transmit information using light-based technology. They transfer data at a high-speed rate since they have a large bandwidth and over long distances. They are used in telecommunication services such as the internet, telephones, and televisions. They are also used in industries for different applications. Today, the copper wires that were in use ealier are being replaced fast by the fibers, and you can check out for more information. We look at the various types of fiber optic cables down below.

1. Various Types of Fiber Optic Cables

Based on the core structure differences, fiber optics can be classified into three, i.e., single-mode optical fiber, a multi-mode optical fiber with stepped index, and multi-mode optical fiber with a graded-index.

2. Single-Mode Optical Fibre (SMF)

It is the most recent kind, as it was developed after the multi-modes. It carries one beam of light across its length; hence its name and the light used is not in the visible spectrum. It consists of three parts: the core, cladding, and buffer. The light’s diameter differs slightly with that of the core, which is about 8 to 10 microns. This leaves little room for the light to move around; therefore, it is transmitted in a straight line. Compared to other types, single-mode is better as they have a considerable bandwidth, and the losses created are few. The speed of transmission of information is also very high. The downside is that they are expensive and hard to couple.

3. Multimode Optical Fiber

This wire type carries multiple wavelengths of light across it, and they are in the visible spectrum. The light modes are carried concurrently, each reflecting at a different angle within the core. The diameter of the core is usually thicker than that of single-mode optical fiber. The reflections created by the light passing through the core allows more data to be transmitted at a given time, over moderate distances. The number of reflections varies since some rays pass without touching the core, while others form appropriate internal reflections. The cladding absorbs those that do not create complete internal reflections, and losses are made. There are two types of multi-mode optical fibers:

4. Stepped Index Multimode Optical Fiber

It refers to a fiber where the core has a uniform refractive index while the cladding has a sharp decreasing refraction index. It supports data transmission over short distances to prevent modal dispersion. It is suitable in the medical and industrial sectors as they require high power densities.

5. Graded Index Multimode Optical Fiber

The core’s refractive index is not uniform due to the high refractive index at the core on the axis, which then decreases away from the axis in a radial manner, forming a parabolic curve. The refractive index of the cladding remains constant. The lights travel in helical motions, reducing the distance of travel.


With recent technology, fiber optic cables have become popular, and they are being used widely. Each type has different specifications, and getting a good supplier will assist you in buying right.

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